• Soil and Aggregate Compaction

    soil-aggregate represented in the measurements is indeterminate and will vary with the source detector geometry of the equipment used and with the characteristics of the material tested.

  • How much volume is lost after compacting 3/4" crushed stone?

    With a more properly graded 3/4" washed stone (such as a good filter stone ranging between the 3/8" and 1" diameter), you will have a loose drop of more like 75%, but you will also actually be able to get closer to 100% without talking about your subgrade. If the subgrade is sandy, it will not invade such a well graded gravel as much. This is a superior situation.

  • A number of websites have recommended adding 4% to the order to account for compaction. Bob Vila Gravel Expert Great Day ImprovementsBest answer · 1When something calls for x" of compacted y, you typically calculate the amount of y prior to compacting. So if something calls for a 4" compacted base, order enough to cover your area with 4". Then compact. (Actually, order to cover 4", but the only lay down half, compact that, then lay down the other half, then compact that.) In other words, you don't typically order the stone to allow for compaction. You order the stone based on the volume needed prior to compaction. UPDATE: If you're just asking about the rate of compaction 3/4 minus has, the answer is.actually, that's a tough one. There seems to be a lot of opinion, but no specific engineering spec that I can find. General googling seems to imply you'd be in the 20% loss due to compaction range, but I can't find any hard data to back that up. Keep in mind that there's also issues of your soil base compacting as well. So based on that limited info, I'd suggest ordering 20% over. Keep in mind that this may be a trial-and-error process that may not be worth the headache. If you can't get 20% compaction, then you're left with extra crushed stone that may or may not be easy to get rid of.3From my experience it depends a lot on how is the compaction done. If you are compacting road crush with a vibratory plate you will get about 10 to 15% compaction. (This is based on you having a stable compacted base first. If you are putting the road crush on top of top soil you will lose more to compaction.) If you use a jumping jack, about 20% would be accurate. I personally like a jumping jack because it is very evident when it is fully compacted (The jumping jack will 'jump' when it is fully compacted. It will also keep compacting into soft areas till they are fully compacted. If you get to clay base you can expect about 20%, but if you are in top soil, it can take significantly more volume to fill and compact). You also need to asses what you are placing over the top of the road crush. If it is a sidewalk it will not get the same psi as a driveway. If you are parking a motorhome then you want to ensure a fully compacted base. Think of it this way. Spending a weekend with jumping jack is worth not having cracked driveways.2I was actually looking for an accurate range for a specific stone and wound up here The answer is complicated but boils down to about 10 to 25% over order based on a bunch of stuff. The loose drop weight of a relatively uniform (all the rocks are similar size and shape) 3/4" stone will be about 80-90% depending on the stone (angularity and phi). Presuming that you are compacting to 100% of some form of "proctor density", because you're awesome at compacting and have a monster machine (and thin lifts), that's 100/80=125%. You will not achieve 100%. You will not achieve close to 100%. 100% is what some sledge hammer thing does to a couple of buckets of soil over the course of 15 to 30 minutes with some guy standing there adding water until it's perfect. You will be lucky to get 93% with standard effort. That gets you about 10% loss in volume. However, as others mentioned, you will get more loss on a finer substrata. This is mostly because the finer strata (sand silt clay) will ooze around the stones as you literally drive the stone into the subgrade. If the subgrade is rocky, the stone will "hang up" on the underlying rocks and you won't have such a loss at first upwelling water will probably manage to settle your gravel a little by moving surrounding finer soils over time. With a more properly graded 3/4" washed stone (such as a good filter stone ranging between the 3/8" and 1" diameter), you will have a loose drop of more like 75%, but you will also actually be able to get closer to 100% without talking about your subgrade. If the subgrade is sandy, it will not invade such a well graded gravel as much. This is a superior situation. If you're a glacier, you will take a loose dropped stone weighing roughly 105 pcf, and make it into metamorphic stone weighing 167 pcf, meaning that you should have ordered 159% of your required thickness for your glacier walkway or whatever. ~Geotechnical P.E.1Without having done any experiments, my scientific wild-ass guess (SWAG) is 4 to 8 percent. Here are two reasons for thinking this is reasonable: The densest packing of spheres is about 74%, whereas a common less compact packing is about 68%. (74% 68%) / 74% = 8% potential volume loss. A standard specification for careful tamping of backfill is "in 6-inch lifts to 95% of maximum density". In other words, after tamping, there is still a potential for 0% 5% potential volume loss. The 74% packing density is "face-centered cubic" or "hexagonal close pack" or "tetragonal body-centered cubic". The 68% packing density is "body-centered cubic".0Shame this question is so old as I can offer a far more comprehensive answer. The truth is it's impossible to create an exact formula. Too many variables. What proctor density are you compacting to? What is the density of the substrate? What is the moisture content of the substrate and the material to be used? How much weight will be applied to the finished product? Some of our roads have a weight limit, compaction is a very complicated thing.. when ordering stone it depends on availability. Under-order easily available stone and top up if needed. Over-order difficult to access stone and dispose of if necessary.075% sounds like the upper end, I don't really know. I will suggest using sand, 1/4" minus or fines, shown as the 1" of sand in the picture. The 3/4s is for drainage, 1/4 or sand is so you can set them properly allowing for deviation of materials. Delivery is expensive, buy a little extra. Or build back up what you've lost by adding the sand topping. Sand you can be pretty sure about.
  • base course aggregate compaction Earthwork/grading

    12-07-2009· 1. Whenever compaction of pavement structure is presented, it is always a good idea to identify CLEARLY (a) the type of material (i.e., crushed stone aggregate, river gravel, etc) (b) the compaction method used (i.e., standard or modified Proctor (light or heavy tamping for our British friends).

  • better go back and check your numbers, but why 100% and not 95%? and is this standard or modified proctor? or is it a relative density test?i'd suggest against 95% modified.use at least 98% or 100% modified.not standard Proctor on base course material. was the subgrade tested/proofrolled? what was the requirements for that? also as cvg asks, you referring to standard/modified Proctor or relative?also what was the in-situ density and moisture as tested?What is your base course, thickness, processing methods?The short answer is that no one can tell you how many passes of the roller will be required. It depends on the water content of the material and the stiffness of the subgrade that you are compacting against.1. Whenever compaction of pavement structure is presented, it is always a good idea to identify CLEARLY (a) the type of material (i.e., crushed stone aggregate, river gravel, etc) (b) the compaction method used (i.e., standard or modified Proctor (light or heavy tamping for our British friends). This establishes facts that anyone making a reply will want to know and lessens confusion. 2. Normally, in my experience, base courses are compacted to 98 to 100% of the maximum dry density (MDD) Modified Proctor. 3. GeoPaveTraffic indentifed several aspects that are important. 4. 7% OMC (optimum moisture content) seems a bit on the high side for pavement base courses I have used. It would suggest that you are not using crushed stone aggregate and that your base course material is a bit on the sandy side or, forbid, the base course has significant fines that might be clayey in nature (high PI). 5. 85% is very much on the low side especially since end dumping into a pile will be in the order of 85% (standard proctor). So any passes you are making should improve considerably this number. Sands I have used in the past would gain 95% standard Proctor under 4 passes. 6. I would doubly check your proctor values if after all those passes you are getting such low results. I might suggest that you carry out a relative compaction check using the old Ontario's Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MTC)-or whatever they call themselves these days. I've explained it fully in previous threads but basically, you dig a hole, use a sand cone or rubber balloon to determine the volume of the hole. you take ALL the material from the hole and compact, on site, into a proctor mould at "about" the optimum moisture content(depends on how good your field tech is but if they do this a lot, they would have a good feel). Adjustments in the number of blows per layer are made for holes that are not of the "standard" volume. You then determine the volume of the compacted material in the mould. Compare the volume in the dug hole with the volume in the compacted mould to get the approximate relative compaction. It is a good test takes time but as a check on the lab proctor values would be reasonable. Sorry it is long reply . . . CheersAnother point. How are you determining the density in the field? That is the first thing to check when you are that far off of what might be expected. Do you have equipment to do the test by old stand-by methods such as the sand cone (large enough size also). A 2 mm loosening error on hole sides even for that method can make a major goof in the result. Is sand calibrated in the lab? Accumulating errors in the wrong direction also may be your problem. If you are using nuke methods, there can be some big errors present due to technique and no on-site calibration (not a lab calibration). Then comes the proof of the pudding. What does a full load of heavy vehicle tire load cause in the way of visual appearance of the job? Any ruts? Deflection in the base?BigH.interesting that you consider the 7% to be high.it is very low compared to the materials we see here in the SE US. For a modified proctor on crusher run granite or river rock, we see slightly higher than the 7%..8.5 to 10. For limerock, we see about 9 to 11. The sandier the material is, the higher the optimum moisture will generally be. This material has a MDD of about 142 pcf, so 7% is not out of the ballpark. I would expect that the shape of the proctor curve is steep and therefore the material is very moisture sensitive. Maybe they're not controlling the moisture well enough to achieve compaction. If they are on the dry side, then they can pound on it forever and not get anywhere. GPT, BigH, and oldestguy have laid it out nicely.no point in repeating.Ron the crushed stone I've been using for road base over the years (Laos, India) had OMC values in the order of 5% plus or minus a couple of points. Interesting to see how such values do vary over the many regions of the world and country. . . Why we must all be somewhat cautious about correlations. Agree that the sandier, the higher the OMC.BigH.you're right.difficult to correlate to a variety of locations. Most of our base materials will care a MDD of 115 to 125 pcf, with optimum in the range of 9 to 11%. Stabilities are good with CBR in the 80+ range.
  • compaction factor for crushed stone supremewheels.co.za

    in the Road Test and compacted to the mean density levels found in the field were the subject of primary field compaction was 101 percent for the crushed stone and 104 percent for the gravel. It should be . courses used in the AASHO Road Test, consideration should be given to two factors that may be significant.

  • compaction factor of type 1 stone bonaccord.in

    FLEXIBLE BASE. Furnish aggregate of the type and grade shown on the plans and conforming to the Each source must meet Table 1 requirements for liquid limit, plasticity index, and wet . beginning and during compaction in accordance with Tex-103-E.

  • Spike's Compaction Factor Calculator spikevm

    The Spike's Compaction Factor can also be used to estimate the amount of material you need to purchase for an area that needs to be filled and compacted. For instance you need to place a 6" layer of gravel inside a foundation. Your calculation of the area for a 20' x 20' wide with a depth of 6" would give you a volume needed of 20 * 20 * .5 = 200 cubic feet.

  • Compaction Factor Test for Concrete Workability The Constructor

    Compaction Factor Test for Concrete Workability. Compaction factor test is the workability test for concrete conducted in laboratory. The compaction factor is the ratio of weights of partially compacted to fully compacted concrete.

  • AASHTO #57 Stone Specs Capitol Flexi-Pave

    AASHTO #57 stone as defined by quarries, state agencies, etc. is an open-graded, self-compacting aggregate blend of size 5, 6, & 7 stone. This material cannot be 'compacted' in a true sense, but can be properly oriented

  • Soil Compaction Handbook Multiquip Inc

    Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. In construction, In construction, this is a significant part of the building process.

  • Soil and Rock Bulk Factors Engineering ToolBox

    Soil and rock expansion or swell after mining Sponsored Links Soil or rock from the borrow expands when dropped on the lorry or the landfill or stockpiled.

  • Specifications For CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE COARSE #2 &

    Crushed Aggregate Base Coarse (Compaction Gravel) shall consist of one or more courses or layers of coarse aggregate, either crushed gravel or crushed stone, fine aggregate and binder or filler blended as necessary to produce an intimate mixture of the required gradation and stability.

  • compaction factor for stone aggregate deniseohlson.co.za

    aggregate compaction factor [ 4.6 9818 Ratings ] The Gulin product line, consisting of more than 30 machines, sets the standard for our industry. We plan to help you meet your needs with our equipment, with our distribution and product support system, and the continual introduction and updating of products. compaction factor of stone

  • METHOD OF TEST FOR RELATIVE COMPACTION OF

    This test method describes the procedure used to determine the relative compaction of untreated and treated soils and aggregates. Relative compaction in this method is defined as the ratio of the in-place, wet density of a soil or aggregate to the test maximum wet density of the same soil or aggregate when compacted by a specific test method.

  • Asphalt Mixture Compaction and Aggregate Structure

    Asphalt Mixture Compaction and Aggregate Structure Analysis Techniques: State of the art report gravel, broken stone, ashes and coal tar binder were used in This review compares only the methods of compaction, assuming proper aggregate selection and static conditions have been accounted for.

  • compaction factor of type 1 stone bonaccord.in

    compaction factor of type 1 stone. Home; compaction factor of type 1 stone; Soils and Aggregate Compaction db Virginia Department of CBR is one of the major factors used in Each type has different characteristics and must be dealt with accordingly. . Provides separation of soil/aggregate.

  • Estimating volume of crushed stone using in-place volume from drawings Geotechnical engineering general discussion eng-tips

    Feb 27, 2004· Seeking information on how I can estimate the volume of crushed stone to purchase if the only data available is the final volume (from bid drawings) of the material in-place after compaction,(i.e., what would the typical "fluff factors" be for #2 crushed stone, #3 washed crushed stone, subbase Type 4, etc.) Stone/Gravel suppliers have some estimates but I seek other data if available.

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  • Soil & Gravel BTI MATERIALS

    Calculator does not account for compaction factor. BTI Materials is a Producer of quality Soil, Gravel, and Bark products. 1/2 Washed. 1/4 Minus Chip. 3/4 Chip. 3/4. 5/8 Minus. 5/8 Chip. Pea Gravel. Pit-Run. RR Balast. Stone Sand. Utility Sand. BTI Materials. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Get Started

  • Construction Aggregate Calculator Vulcan Materials Company

    Construction Aggregate Calculator Enter the width, length, thickness, and product density and hit the “Calculate” button to calculate your estimate. If you do not know the product density, use the optional density estimator* or contact a local sales representative.

  • 57 Stone Compaction When?? Structural-Int'l Bldg and Resid'l Codes Forum ICC iccsafe

    Oct 04, 2011· No. 57 stone is an easily consolidated material but it is not self-consolidating. Uncompacted or dumper deposits of No. 57 stone can settle about 1" per foot of thickness. No. 57 stone should be placed in lifts and consolidated using conventional compaction techniques.

  • Compaction Factor For "Reference" Road Base Concrete &

    May 22, 2008· I did a search on the forum and couldn't find any information regarding compaction or fluff factors for standard road base material. I know I can hire someone to do that for me, but all I need is a decent reference that identifies the factor (either fluff or compaction, inverse of each other) for a "standard" or "reference" road base material.

  • 154 AGGREGATE SUBGRADE THICKNESS

    1. Aggregate properties such as angularity, fines content, and fines plasticity. 2. Aggregate layer compaction. 3. The number of load passes. It was also noted for subgrade IBVs of 3 or greater, aggregate properties, rather than subgrade characteristics and aggregate thickness, are likely to

  • Graniterock: Technical Reports

    Compaction of Subgrades and Aggregate Base Courses. Construction compaction is the process by which the weight-per-unit volume of soils and aggregates is increased by the use of applied force. This weight-per-unit volume, or density, is measured and compared to a laboratory-determined maximum density of the same material.

  • Section III: Surface Gravel US EPA

    the gravel could have been produced for use as base or cushion material for a paved road. There are two major differences between surface gravel and base (cushion) material. Good gravel for Section III: Surface Gravel Section III: Surface Gravel 39 base courses will generally have larger top-sized stone and a very small per-

  • Soil & Gravel BTI MATERIALS

    Calculator does not account for compaction factor. BTI Materials is a Producer of quality Soil, Gravel, and Bark products. 1/2 Washed. 1/4 Minus Chip. 3/4 Chip. 3/4. 5/8 Minus. 5/8 Chip. Pea Gravel. Pit-Run. RR Balast. Stone Sand. Utility Sand. BTI Materials. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Get Started

  • Compaction Factor For "Reference" Road Base Concrete

    May 22, 2008· I did a search on the forum and couldn't find any information regarding compaction or fluff factors for standard road base material. I know I can hire someone to do that for me, but all I need is a decent reference that identifies the factor (either fluff or compaction, inverse of each other) for a "standard" or "reference" road base material.

  • 154 AGGREGATE SUBGRADE THICKNESS DETERMINATION

    1. Aggregate properties such as angularity, fines content, and fines plasticity. 2. Aggregate layer compaction. 3. The number of load passes. It was also noted for subgrade IBVs of 3 or greater, aggregate properties, rather than subgrade characteristics and aggregate thickness, are likely to

  • Compaction of Subgrades and Aggregate Base Courses

    Compaction of Subgrades and Aggregate Base Courses. Construction compaction is the process by which the weight-per-unit volume of soils and aggregates is increased by the use of applied force. This weight-per-unit volume, or density, is measured and compared to a laboratory-determined maximum density of the same material.

  • compaction factor for process stone Solution for ore mining

    Mar 18, 2013· crushed stone compacting factor. example of companies with aggregate planning process; crasher business in india; marble granite grinders and polishers near compaction factor value of quarry dust Solution for ore mining. highest slumps and compaction factor were recorded for the mixes designed by British method.

  • crushed limestone compaction factor deniseohlson.co.za

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  • How to Calculate the Soil Compaction Factor Hunker

    Whether it's an underground pipe, a sidewalk, a home, or a skyscraper, it all depends upon the soil being stable, and not moving due to water or further compression. Various machines compress soil, but the key to using them is knowing how far the compaction still has to go, and when the proper target compaction

  • Section III: Surface Gravel US EPA

    the gravel could have been produced for use as base or cushion material for a paved road. There are two major differences between surface gravel and base (cushion) material. Good gravel for Section III: Surface Gravel Section III: Surface Gravel 39 base courses will generally have larger top-sized stone and a very small per-

  • compaction factor crushed rock educationcare.in

    Soil Compaction Handbook Multiquip Inc. There are four types of compaction effort on soil or asphalt. Vibration .. Other factors must aggregate sizes (crushed stone, gravel, sand and fines) mixed.

  • DGLVR Materials Calculator Center for Dirt and Gravel

    In order to assist Districts in developing and double-checking quantities for grant application workplans, the Center has develop a “DGLVR Materials Calculator”. This calculator uses the densities and compaction ratios of common materials available in PA to conveniently determine aggregate, stone, and fill estimates for project needs.

  • compaction factor for crushed stone vhf-venw.nl

    shrinkage factor crushed stone biosantebe. compaction factor for crushed stone;,The following shrink/swell factors are recommended for the sedimentary rock types encountered within Crushed stone The effects of limestone aggregate on concrete properties,The effects of limestone aggregate on concrete properti,To estimate the shrinkage of

  • 32 11 23 Aggregate Base Course UDFCD

    SECTION 32 11 23 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE . PART 1 GENERAL . 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES . A. The WORK to be performed includes the preparation of the aggregate base course foundation; and the production, stockpiling, hauling, placing, and compacting of aggregate base

  • crushed stone compaction factor kinder-slaapzak.nl

    How to Pack Down Crushed Granite,dampen the gravel with water before compacting it,How to Landscape With Crushed Stone; crushed stone compacting factor crusherasia. crushed stone compacting factor Crushing project, Crusher,crushed stone compacting factor As a professional crushing and,17 Spec Section 305 Dense Graded Base

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    compaction factor for process stone Solution for ore,crushed stone compacting factor Crushing project, Crusher plant,crushed stone compacting factor,example of companies with aggregate planning process; crasher business in india; marble granite grinders and polishers near . crushed rock compaction factor ,

  • compaction factor crushed rock educationcare.in

    Soil Compaction Handbook Multiquip Inc. There are four types of compaction effort on soil or asphalt. Vibration .. Other factors must aggregate sizes (crushed stone, gravel, sand and fines) mixed.

  • DGLVR Materials Calculator Center for Dirt and Gravel

    In order to assist Districts in developing and double-checking quantities for grant application workplans, the Center has develop a “DGLVR Materials Calculator”. This calculator uses the densities and compaction ratios of common materials available in PA to conveniently determine aggregate, stone, and fill estimates for project needs.

  • compaction factor for crushed stone vhf-venw.nl

    shrinkage factor crushed stone biosantebe. compaction factor for crushed stone;,The following shrink/swell factors are recommended for the sedimentary rock types encountered within Crushed stone The effects of limestone aggregate on concrete properties,The effects of limestone aggregate on concrete properti,To estimate the shrinkage of

  • PennDOT Specification Changes for Materials, Equipment

    PennDOT Specification Changes for Materials, Equipment, Compaction, and Testing of Embankments and Fills Frank P. Namatka, P.E. Senior Geotechnical Engineer

  • Recommended Compaction Requirements for Placement

    Recommended Compaction Requirements for Placement of Uniform Fine Sand Backfill Materials Objective and Scope of Project The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for com-paction of cohesionless soils used as backfill materials. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) utilizes a number of sources of cohesionless soils

  • 32 11 23 Aggregate Base Course UDFCD

    SECTION 32 11 23 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE . PART 1 GENERAL . 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES . A. The WORK to be performed includes the preparation of the aggregate base course foundation; and the production, stockpiling, hauling, placing, and compacting of aggregate base

  • Compaction of Tender Mixes Graniterock

    Compaction of Tender Mixes. TENDERNESS DURING CONSTRUCTION Tenderness of asphaltic concrete mixture during construction usually refers to a mix that is difficult to compact to required density. The mix tends to shove under steel wheel vibratory rollers and/or leaves longitudinal cracks in the pavement at the edges of steel drums.

  • Aggregate AfriSam

    The AfriSam Aggregate product range ensures that every need in the aggregate fi eld is met: • Roadstone is a high quality product with specifi c grading, shape and wearing properties for asphalt and road surfacing applications. • Concrete aggregates include a wide range of stone

  • Crushed Stone Compacting Factor curacyte.eu

    aggregate compaction factor [ 6176 Ratings ] The Gulin crushed stone compacting factor crusherasia. crushed stone compacting factor, chapter 3 stone compaction ratio les Crushed Stone Compaction Factor ramdevpgcollegeorg. crushing stone, gravel, slag, or recycled concrete that meet the requirements for wear and A flat particle is one

  • compaction compaction test for sub grade and crushed stone

    aggregate compaction factor Grinding Mill China. aggregate compaction factor Comparison of Different Soil Compaction Test Methods E-modulus and compaction factor crushed stone compaction rock Influence of Laboratory Compaction Methods on Influence of Laboratory Compaction Methods on Shear Performance of Graded Crushed Stone

  • compaction factor of stone educationcare.in

    Soil Compaction Handbook Multiquip Inc. There are four types of compaction effort on soil or asphalt. Vibration. . Impact .. aggregate sizes (crushed stone, gravel, sand and fines) mixed with bitumen Lift height (depth of the soil layer) is an important factor that affects machine More details » Get Price

  • Calculating gravel tonnage, cubes, and sand and earth.

    Real life stone, gravel and sand densities (weight / volume) vary widely: The local quarry or supplier which you elect to use should be able to provide the densities (tons / cubic yard) of their unique gravel, which they are quoting to you.